Calibration of overtopping roughness factors for concrete armor units in non-breaking conditions using the clash database
Jorge Molines Llodrá, Josep Ramón Medina
The estimation of wave overtopping on breakwaters is a major design issue because it affects crest elevation and operational conditions. The overtopping rates on a mound breakwater depend on structural and environmental conditions. One of the structural characteristics is the roughness factor, γf; the higher the roughness factor, the higher the overtopping rates. The roughness factor, γf, takes into account how overtopping is influenced by the armor unit geometry, the number of layers, the packing density, the permeability of the filter and core as well as other structural characteristics.