Stability of crown walls of cube and cubipod armored mound breakwaters
Jorge Molines Llodrá
Breakwaters can generally be divided into two types: vertical and mound breakwaters. The former reflect the wave energy, with the associated problems for navigation, but they are cheaper and more respectful of the environment than the mound one. The latter absorb part of the wave energy, resisting wave action mainly by wave breaking.
Normaly, mound breakwaters are crowned with a concrete superstructure resting on the mound layer, and are partially protected by the armour layer. The aim is to reduce the amount of concrete used in armor layers and increase the crest freeboard while decreasing cost. Crown walls are attacked by wave impact and earth armor-layer pressure, the former being the most important one due to the higher value